According to Cardiologist, on an average, about 303,000 newborns die within 4 weeks post detection, as a result of congenital diseases. Congenital diseases are present due to some medical deformities during the time of birth. Congenital disease can cause long term disability, which may have adverse effects on survival and development. Several times it remains unclear regarding the exact cause of this congenital defects.
Here are the 3 most common congenital defects a baby may suffer from:
1. Congenital Heart Disorder
It is the medical condition in which there exists a problem in the heart structure since the time of birth. Its symptoms may either be absent or may vary from mild discomfort to life-threatening condition such as heart failure. It can be distinguished by presence of bluish skin, low birth weight and fatigue.
The exact cause for congenital heart disease often remains unknown. Mother’s infected with Rubella during the period of pregnancy may act as a contributing factor for the same. Additional factors during pregnancy such as consumption of alcohol or tobacco or some specific medication may also play a significant role for the same.
2. Down Syndrome
This medical condition is also called Trisomy 21, in which a third copy of chromosome number 21 present alters the genetic makeup. It affects adversely on the physical growth and mental development. It can be characterized by observing delayed growth and moderate intellectual disabilities. A grown up individual suffering from down syndrome possess an average IQ of 50, which is equivalent to mental age of a child of eight years old.
The possibility of having down-syndrome is associated with the mother’s age. The risk of suffering from it is about 3 percent for pregnant woman with age more than 45, this risk minimizes to 0.1 percent in case the woman is 20 years
3. Cleft lip and Cleft palate
Also called orofacial cleft, this is a class of defects that include either cleft lip, cleft palate or both. In a cleft lip, an opening may stretch till nose. It may be present either on one side, both sides or in the middle. In a cleft palate, an opening exist between the roof of mouth and nose. These conditions arise when joining of tissues does not occur effectively.
According to ENT Specialists of ILS Hospitals, if this condition is left untreated, it can interfere with feeding, speech and hearing function. It also causes persistent ear infection. Consumption of alcohol or tobacco or even obesity during pregnancy has been associated with this group of diseases.